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Section ⅠUse of English


Read the following text. Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Today we live in a world where GPS systems, digital maps, and other navigation apps are available on our smart phones.  1  of us just walk straight into the woods without a phone. But phones  2  on batteries, and batteries can die faster than we realize.  3  you get lost without a phone or a compass, and you  4  can’t find north, a few tricks to help you navigate  5  to civilization, one of which is to follow the land…

When you find yourself well  6  a trail, but not in a completely  7  area, you have to answer two questions: Which  8  is downhill, in this particular area? And where is the nearest water source? Humans overwhelmingly live in valleys, and on supplies of fresh water.  9  , if you head downhill, and follow any H2O you find, you should  10  see signs of people.

If you’ve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sights—you may be  11  how quickly identifying a distinctive rock or tree can restore your bearings.

Another  12  : Climb high and look for signs of human habitation.  13 , even in dense forest, you should be able to   14   gaps in the tree line due to roads, train tracks, and other paths people carve 15  the woods. Head toward these  16  to find a way out. At night, scan the horizon for  17  light sources, such as fires and streetlights, then walk toward the glow of light pollution.

18 , assuming you’re lost in an area humans tend to frequent, look for the  19  we leave on the landscape. Trail blazes, tire tracks, and other features can  20  you to civilization.

1. [A]Some      [B]Most      [C]Few      [D]All



2. [A]put     [B]take     [C]run     [D]come


【解析】run on battery表示手机用电池发动,运行。其他选项:Put on (穿上;使运转);take on (承担;呈现);come on (快点;开始),语义不通顺。故正确答案为[C] run。

3. [A]Since     [B] If      [C]Though      [D]Until


【解析】空格所在句译文:____你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路,____找不到北方,我们有一些技巧可以帮助你导航____文明。此处为假设的情况,故填入if(如果)符合上下文的表达。其余选项:Since (因为;自从), though (虽然), until (直到)带入后,语义不通顺。故正确答案为[B] If。

4. [A]formally      [B] relatively      [C] gradually      [D] literally


【解析】空格所在句译文:____你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路,____找不到北方,我们有一些技巧可以帮助你导航____文明。此处literally表示确实地,真正地,带入原文语义通顺:你的确找不到北方。其余选项:Formally (正式地),relatively(相对地),gradually(逐渐地)带入后,语义不通顺。故正确答案为[D] literally.

5. [A] back     [B] next      [C] around      [D] away


【解析】空格所在句译文:____你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路,____找不到北方,我们有一些技巧可以帮助你导航____文明。前文讲lost(迷路),此处填入back(回到)文明之地相互呼应,故正确答案为[A] back。

6. [A]onto      [B]off     [C]across      [D]alone


【解析】空格所在句的句意为:当你____路径,但不是完全______的区域,你需要回答两个问题:在这个特殊区域,哪儿条路是下坡?哪儿里有最近的水源?通过后半句的问题,能够了解到前面是当你偏离轨道,迷失踪迹的时候。B选项off (远离,离开)符合语义要求;A选项onto(在…之上),C选项across(穿过,横穿),D选项alone(独自地,单独地)带入空格后,语义不通顺,均排除。故正确答案为B选项off。

7. [A]unattractive     [B] uncrowded      [C]unchanged      [D]unfamiliar



8. [A]site     [B]point      [C]way      [D]place



9. [A]So      [B]Yet      [C]Instead      [D]Besides



10. [A]immediately      [B] intentionally      [C]unexpectedly      [D] eventually


【解析】空格所在句的句意:所以如果你下山,沿着你找到的水一直走,你______会看到人类的迹象……,空格处所需的副词需要符合本句语境并是句子语义通顺。D选项eventually (最后,终于)符合语义要求;A选项immediately(立即,立刻),B选项intentionally(故意地,有意地),C选项unexpectedly(意外地,出乎意料地)带入空格后,语义不通顺,均排除。故正确答案为D选项eventually。

11. [A]surprised      [B]annoyed      [C]frightened      [D]confused


【解析】空格所在句提到:If you’ve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sights—you may be surprised how quickly spotting a distinctive rock or tree can restore your bearings(如果你之前去过这个地方,一定要注意熟悉的景象,你或许会____快速识别出一块特征明显的岩石或树木能帮助你恢复记忆)。此句明显体现了积极褒义的感情色彩,根据这个线索,可直接确定A选项surprised为正确答案,即:你或许会感到惊讶……

12. [A] problem      [B]option      [C]view      [D]result


【解析】本文第一段提到:“如果你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路了,而且你真的找不到北方,我们有一些技巧可以帮助你回到文明社会”。空格所在处提到:另一个___: 登到高处寻找有人类住所的标志,因此此处的another__应该与tricks构成总分关系,即,空格处所填的名词应与tricks语义相近。只有B选项option(选择,办法)符合要求。

13. [A] Above all      [B]In contrast      [C] On average      [D] For example


【解析】空格前提到“另一个办法就是登高来寻找有人类居住的标志”,关键词为:look for signs;空格后提到“在茂密森林里,你应该能够发现由于道路、电缆、火车轨道和人们在树林中开辟的其他道路而造成的树木之间的空隙”,关键词为:spot gaps。而look for与spot语义相近,signs为抽象名词,gaps为具体名词,因此空格前后表是例证关系或总分关系,故D选项for example(例如)为正确答案。

14. [A]bridge   [B]avoid    [C]spot     [D]separate


【解析】本题空格所在句是对前面句子的例证,故主题一致,因此空格处需填入的动词需和look for语义相近,故选择spot(识别,发现)。

15. [A] from      [B] through      [C]beyond      [D] under


【解析】空格处需填入介词来和前面的动词carve及后面的名词woods构成顺畅的语义搭配。Carve____woods:在森林中开辟道路, B选项 through用法最恰当,故为正确答案。

16. [A] posts      [B]links      [C]shades      [D]breaks


【解析】本题空前有一个指示代词these,通过语义,“these 16 ” 指代上文的“roads, train tracks, and other paths”,并由定语从句“people carve through the woods”(人们在森林中开辟的……)修饰。从语义上来看,breaks最合适。

17. [A] artificial     [B] mysterious              [C] hidden      [D] limited


【解析】本空所处的句子“scan … for 17 light sources”,与本段开头 “look for sign of human habitation ”结构一致,语义相关,空格处所填形容词和human意思相近,选择artificial “人造的”。除此之外,17题后面“such as fires and streetlights,”所列举的两种光源的共同特点就是artificial。

18. [A] Finally       [B] Consequently   [C] incidentally [D] Generally


【解析】空后为条件状语从句“assuming you ”,与上文的“If you”构成顺接递进关系,选项中,只用finally表顺接。

19. [A] memories   [B] marks              [C] notes        [D] belongings


【解析】空后的定语从句“we leave on the landscape”,由语义得知此处应该填“标记”,所以选marks。

20. [A] restrict       [B] adopt               [C] lead          [D] expose


【解析】所填动词需要与主语 “tire blazes, tire tracks and other fearures”(轮胎,轮胎痕迹和其他标记),宾语you,以及不定式 to civilization(文明)之间构成完整语义,所以此处填lead“引导”最合适。


Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A


Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

Financial regulations in Britain have imposed a rather unusual rule on the bosses of big banks. Starting next year, any guaranteed bonus of top executives could be delayed 10 years if their banks are under investigation for wrongdoing. The main purpose of this “clawback” rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institution. Yet officials also hope for a much larger benefit: more long term decision-making not only by banks but also bu all corporations, to build a stronger economy for future generations.

“Short-termism” or the desire for quick profits, has worsened in publicly traded companies, says the Bank of England’s top economist. Andrew Haldane. He quotes a giant of classical economies, Alfred Marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting like “Children who pick the plums out of their pudding to eat them at once” rather than putting them aside to be eaten last.

The average time for holding a stock in both the United States and Britain, he notes, has dropped from seven years to seven months in recent decades. Transient investors, who demand high quarterly profits from companies, can hinder a firm’s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty. This has been dubbed “quarterly capitalism”。

In addition, new digital technologies have allowed more rapid trading of equities, quicker use of information, and thus shortens attention spans in financial markers. “There seems to be a predominance of short-term thinking at the expense of long-term investing,” said Commissioner Daniel Gallagher of the US Securities and Exchange Commission in speech this week.

In the US, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 has pushed most public companies to defer performance bonuses for senior executives by about a year, slightly helping reduce “short-termism.” In its latest survey of CEO pay, The Wall Street Journal finds that “ a substantial part” of executive pay is now tied to performance.

Much more could be done to encourage “long-termism,” such as changes in the tax code and quicker disclosure of stock acquisitions. In France, shareholders who hold onto a company investment for at least two years can sometimes earn more voting rights in a company.

Within companies, the right compensation design can provide incentives for executives to think beyond their own time at the company and on behalf of all stakeholders. Britain’s new rule is a reminder to bankers that society has an interest in their performance, not just for the short term but for the long term.

21. According to Paragraph 1, one motive in imposing the new rule is the_________.

A. enhance banker’s sense of responsibility

B. help corporations achieve larger profits

C. build a new system of financial regulation

D. guarantee the bonuses of top executives


【解析】根据题干关键词“paragraph 1”和“one motive in imposing the new rule”回文定位在第一段第三句“The main purpose of this ‘clawback’ rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institutions.”,可以得出答案。

22. Alfred Marshall is quoted to indicate_________.

A. the conditions for generating quick profits

B. governments’ impatience in decision-making

C. the solid structure of publicly traded companies

D. “short-termism” in economics activities




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