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2018新疆考研英语二试题及答案解析汇总

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2018考研英语二真题及答案解析完整版

SectionⅠ Ⅰ Use of English
Directions:
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A],[B],
[C] or [D] on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be
painful? Because humans have an inherent need to 1 uncertainty, according to a recent study in
Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is strong that people will 2
to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will 3 .
In a series of experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the
Wisconsin school of Business tested students’ willingness to 4 themselves to unpleasant stimuli in
an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one 5 , each participant was shown a pile of pens that the
researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist? Half of the pens would 6 an
electric shock when clicked.
Twenty-seven students were told with pens were electrified; another twenty-seven were told
only that some were electrified. 7 left alone in the room. The students who did not know which
ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew
that would 8 . Subsequent experiments reproduced this effect with other stimuli, 9 the sound of
fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.
The drive to 10 is deeply rooted in humans, much the same as the basic drives for 11 or
shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago. Curiosity is often considered a good
instinct—it can 12 new scientific advances, for instance—but sometimes such 13 can backfire.
The insight that curiosity can drive you to do 14 things is a profound one.
Unhealthycuriosity is possible to 15 , however. In a final experiment, participants who were
encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to
see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one’s
curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor. Thinking about long-term
20 is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity,”Hsee says. In other words, don’t
read online comments.
1.A.ignore B.protect C.discuss D.resolve
2.A.refuse B.seek C.wait D.regret
3.A.rise B.last C.hurt D.mislead
4.A.alert B.expose C.tie D.treat
5.A.trial B.message C.review D.concept
6.A.remove B.deliver C.weaken D.interrupt
7.A.Unless B.If C.When D.Though
8.A.change B.continue C.disappear D.happen
9.A.such as B.rather than C.regardless of D.owing to
10.A.disagree B.forgive C.discover D.forget
11.A.pay B.food C.marriage D.schooling
12.A.begin with B.rest on C.lead to D.learn from
13.A.inquiry B.withdrawal C.persistence D.diligence
14.A.self-deceptive B.self-reliant C.self-evident D.self-destructive
15.A.trace B.define C.replace D.resist
16.A.conceal B.overlook C.design D.predict
17.A.choose B.remember C.promise D.pretend
18.A.relief B.outcome C.plan D.duty
19.A.how B.why C.where D.whether
20.A.limitations B.investments C.consequences D.strategies
Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A],[B], [C]
or [D]. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Text 1
It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give
his students a better future.
Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high
school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but
practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th
president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike Chain?
As Koziatek know, there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained
by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded
chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.
But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost
a mark of inferiority. School in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype...that it’s
for kids who can’t make it academically,” he says.
On one hand,that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution.Manufacturing is not
the economic engine that it once was.The job security that the US economy once offered to high
school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the new principle.We want more for
our kids,and rightfully so.
But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all—and the subtle devaluing of anything
less—misses an important point:That’s not the only thing the American economy needs.Yes,a
bachelor’s degree opens moredoors.Buteven now,54 percent of the jobs in the country are
middle-skill jobs,such as construction and high-skill manufacturing.But only 44 percent of
workers are adequately trained.
In other words,at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political
head,frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing,one obvious solution is
staring us in the face.There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs
most aren’t equipped to do them.Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is
trying to fill that gap.
Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call. When education becomes one-size-fits-all,it risks
overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts.
21.A broken bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of.
A.academic training
B.practical ability
C.pioneering spirit
D.mechanical memorization
22.There exists the prejudice that vocational education is for kids who.
A.have a stereotyped mind
B.have no career motivation
C.are financially disadvantaged
D.are not academically successful
23.we can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates.
A.used to have more job opportunities
B.used to have big financial concerns
C.are entitled to more educational privileges
D.are reluctant to work in manufacturing
24.The headlong push into bachelors degrees for all.
A.helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs
B.may narrow the gap in working-class jobs
C.indicates the overvaluing of higher education
D.is expected to yield a better-trained workforce
25.The author’s attitude toward Koziatek’s school can be described as.
A.tolerant
B.cautious
C.supportive
D.disappointed
Text 2
While fossil fuels—coal,oil,gas—still generate roughly 85 percent of the world’s energy
supply, it's clearer than ever that the future belongs to renewable sources such as wind and
solar.The move to renewables is picking up momentum around the world:They now account for
more than half of new power sources going on line.
Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted businesses to fund
cleaner energy sources. But increasingly the story is about the plummetingprices of renewables,
especially wind and solar.The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind
turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years.
In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source.In Scotland,
for example,wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes.While the rest
of the world takes the lead,notably China and Europe,the United States is also seeing a
remarkable shift.In March,for the first time,wind and solar power accounted for more than 10
percent of the power generated in the US,reported the US Energy Information Administration.
President Trump has underlined fossil fuels—especially coal—as the path to economic
growth.In a recent speech in Iowa,he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source.But
that message did not play well with many in Iowa,where wind turbines dot the fields and provide
36 percent of the state’s electricity generation—and where tech giants like Microsoft are being
attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.
The question“what happens when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine?”has
provided a quick put-down for skeptics.But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries is making
their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.
The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturers,who are placing big bets on
battery-powered electric vehicles.Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now,this massive
investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.
While there’s a long way to go,the trend lines for renewables are spiking.The pace of change
in energy sources appears to be speeding up—perhaps just in time to have a meaningful effect in
slowing climate change.What Washington does—or doesn’t do—to promote alternative energy
may mean less and less at a time of a global shift in thought.
26.The word“plummeting”(Line 3,Para.2)is closest in meaning to.
A.stabilizing
B.changing
C.falling
D.rising
27.According to Paragraph 3,the use of renewable energy in America.
A.is progressing notably
B.is as extensive as in Europe
C.faces many challenges
D.has proved to be impractical
28.It can be learned that in Iowa, .
A.wind is a widely used energy source
B.wind energy has replaced fossil fuels
C.tech giants are investing in clean energy
D.there is a shortage of clean energy supply
29.Which ofthe following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6?
A.Its application has boosted battery storage.
B.It is commonly used in car manufacturing.
C.Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.
D.Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult.
30.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy.
A.will bring the US closer to other countries
B.will accelerate global environmental change
C.is not really encouraged by the US government
D.is not competitive enough with regard to its cost
Text 3
The power and ambition of the giants of the digital economy is astonishing—Amazon has
just announced the purchase of the upmarket grocery chain Whole Foods for$13.5bn,but two
years ago Facebook paid even more than that to acquire the WhatsApp messaging service,which
doesn’t have any physical product at all. What WhatsApp offered Facebook was an intricate and
finely detailed web of its users’friendships and social lives.
Facebook promised the European commission then that it would not link phone numbers to
Facebook identities,but it broke the promise almost as soon as the deal went through.Even
without knowing what was in the messages,the knowledge of who sent them and to whom was
enormously revealing and still could be.What political journalist,what party whip,would not
want to know the makeup of the WhatsApp groups in which Theresa May’senemies are
currentlyplotting?It may be that the value of Whole Foods to Amazon is not so much the 460
shops it owns, but the records of which customers have purchased what.
Competition law appears to be the only way to address these imbalances of power.But it is
clumsy. For one thing, it is very slow compared to the pace of change within the digital economy.
By the time a problem has been addressed and remedied it may have vanished in the marketplace,
to be replaced by new abuses of power.But there is a deeper conceptual problem, too.
Competition law as presently interpreted deals with financial disadvantage to consumers and this
is not obvious when the users of these services don’t pay for them.The users of their services are
not their customers.That would be the people who buy advertising from them—and Facebook and
Google,the two virtual giants,dominate digital advertising to the disadvantage of all other media
and entertainment companies.
The product they’re selling is data,and we,the users,convert our lives to data for the benefit
of the digital giants. Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphidsfor the honeydew they produce
when they feed, so Google farms us for the data that our digital lives yield.Ants keep predatory
insects away from where their aphids feed; Gmail keeps the spammers out of our inboxes.It
doesn’t feel like a human or democratic relationship,even if both sides benefit.
31.According to Paragraph 1, Facebook acquired WhatsApp for its.
A.digital products
B.user information
C.physical assets
D.quality service
32.Linking phone numbers to Facebook identities may.
A.worsen political disputes
B.mess up customer records
C.pose a risk to Facebook users
D.mislead the European commission
33.According to the author,competition law.
A.should serve the new market powers
B.may worsen the economic imbalance
C.should not provide just one legal solution
D.cannot keep pace with the changing market
34.Competition law as presently interpreted can hardly protect Facebook users because.
A.they are not defined as customers
B.they are not financially reliable
C.the services are generally digital
D.the services are paid for by advertisers
35.The ants analogy is used to illustrate.
A.a win-win business model between digital giants
B.a typical competition pattern among digital giants
C.the benefits provided for digital giants’customers
D.the relationship between digital giants and their users
Text 4
To combat the trap of putting a premium on being busy,Cal Newport,author of Deep work:
Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted world,recommends building a habit of “deep
work”—the ability to focus without distraction.
There are a number of approaches to mastering the art of deep work—be it lengthy retreats
dedicated to a specific task;developing a daily ritual;or taking a “journalistic” approach to seizing
moments of deep work when you can throughout the day. Whichever approach,the key is to
determine your length of focus time and stick to it.
Newport also recommends “deepscheduling” to combat constant interruptions and get more
done in less time.“At any given point,Ishould have deep work scheduled for roughly the next
month.Once on the calendar I protect this time like Iwould a doctor’s appointment or important
meeting”,he writes.
Another approach to getting more done in less time is to rethink how you prioritize your
day—in particular how we craft our to-do lists.Tim Harford, author of Messy:The Power of
Disorder to Transform Our Lives,points to a study in the early 1980s that divided undergraduates
into two groups:some were advised to set out monthly goals and study activities;others were told
to plan activities and goals in much more detail,day by day.
While the researchers assumed that the well-structured daily plans would be most effective
when it came to the execution of tasks,they were wrong:the detailed daily plans demotivated
students.Harford argues that inevitable distractions often render the daily to-do list
ineffective,while leaving room for improvisation in such a list can reap the best results.
In order to make the most of our focus and energy. We also need to embrace downtime,or as
Newport suggests,“be lazy.”
“Idleness is not just a vacation,an indulgence or a vice;it is as indispensable to be brain as
Vitamin D is to the body...[idleness]is, paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done,”he
argues.
Srini Pillay,an assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School,believes this
counter-intuitive link between downtime and productivity may be due to the way our brains
operate When our brains switch between being focused and unfocused on a task,they tend to be
more efficient.
“What people don’t realise is that in order to complete these tasks they need to use both the
focus and unfocus circuits in their brain”. says Pillay.
36.The key to mastering the art of deep work is to ________.
A.keep to your focus time
B.list your immediate tasks
C.make specific daily plans
D.seize every minute to work
37. The study in the early 1980s cited by Harford shows that ________.
A.distractions may actually increase efficiency
B.daily schedules are indispensable to studying
C.students are hardly motivated by monthly goals
D.detailed plans many not be as fruitful as expected
38. According to Newport, idleness is ________.
A.a desirable mental state for busy people
B.a major contributor to physical health
C.an effective way to save time and energy
D.an essential factor in accomplishing any work
39. Pillay believes that our brains’ shift between being focused and unfocused _______.
A.can result in psychological well-being
B.canbring about greater efficiency
C.is aimed at better balance in work
D.is driven by task urgency
40. This text is mainly about _______.
A.ways to relieve the tension of busy life
B.approaches to getting more done in less time
C.the key to eliminating distractions
D.the cause of the lack of focus time
Part B
Directions:
Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its
corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column.
Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
A.Just say it
B.Be present
C.Pay a unique compliment
D.Name, places, things
E.Find the “me too”s
F.Skip the small talk
G.Ask for an opinion
Five ways to make conversation with anyone
Conversations are links, which means when you have a conversation with a new person a link
gets formed and every conversation you have after that moment will strengthen the link.
You meet new people every day: the grocery worker, the cab driver, new people at work or
the security guard at the door. Simply starting a conversation with them will form a link.
Here are five simple ways that you can make the first move and start a conversation with
strangers.
41.____________
Suppose you are in a room with someone you don’t know and something within you says“I
want to talk with this person”—this is something the mostly happens with all of us. You wanted to
say something—the first word—but it just won’t come out. It feels like itis stuck somewhere, I
know the feeling and here is my advice just get it out.
Just think: that is the worst that could happen? They won’t talk with you? Well, they are not
talking with you now!
I truly believe that once you get that first word out everything else will just flow. So keep it
simple: “Hi”,“Hey”or“Hello”—do the best you can to gather all of the enthusiasm and energy you
can, put on a big smile and say“Hi”.
42.____________
It’s a problem all of us face: you have limited time with the person that you want to talk with
and you want to make this talk memorable.
Honestly, if we got stuck in the rut of“hi”,“hello”, “how are you?”and“what’s going on?”you
will fail to give the initial jolt to the conversation that’s can make it so memorable.
So don’t be afraid to ask more personal questions. Trust me, you’ll be surprised to see how
much people are willing to share if you just ask.
43.____________
When you meet a person for the first time, make an effort to find the things which you and
that person have in common so that you can build the conversation from that point. When you
start conversation from there and then move outwards, you’ll find all of a sudden that the
conversation becomes a lot easier.
44.____________
Imagine you are pouring your heart out to someone and they are just busy on their phone, and
if you ask for their attention you get the response “I can multitask”.
So when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication
wholeheartedly. Make eye contact, you can feel the conversation.
45.____________
You all came into a conversation where you first met the person, but after some time you
may have met again and have forgotten their name. Isn’t that awkward!
So remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places
they have been to the place they want to go, the things they like, the thing the hate—whatever you
talk about.
When you remember such thing you can automatically become investor in their wellbeing.
So the feel a responsibility to you to keep that relationship going.
That’s it. Five amazing ways that you can make conversation with almost anyone. Every
person is a really good book to read, or to have a conversation with!
Section Ⅲ Ⅲ Translation
46.Directions:
Translate the following text into Chinese. Your translation should be written on the
ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
A fifth garder gets a homework assignment to select his future career path from a list of
occupations. He ticks “astronaut” but quickly adds “scientist” to the list and selects it as well. The
boy is convinced that if he reads enough. He can explore as many career paths as he likes. And so
he reads—everything from encyclopedias to science fiction novels. He reads so passionately that
his parents have to institute a “no reading policy”at the dinner table.
That boy was Bill Gates,and he hasn’t stopped reading yet—not even after becoming one of
the most science fiction and reference books; recently, he revealed that he reads at least so
nonfiction books a year. Gates chooses nonfiction title because they explain how the world
works.“Each book opens up new avenues of knowledge,”Gates says.
Section Ⅳ Ⅳ Writing
Part A
47.Directions:
Suppose you have to cancel your travel plan and will not be able to visit Professor Smith.
Write him an email to
1)apologize and explain the situation, and
2)suggest a future meeting.
You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not use your own name. Use“Li Ming” instead.
Do not write your address.(10 points)
Part B
48.Directions:
Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing you should
1)interpret the chart and
2)give your comments
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points)

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