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2021全国硕士研究生考试考研英语二部分试题及答案

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Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

It’s not difficult to set targets for staff. It is much harder,        1       , to understand their negative consequences. Most work-related behaviors have multiple components.           2      one and the others become distorted.

Travel on a London bus and you’ll           3      see how this works with drivers. Watch people get on and show their tickets. Are they carefully inspected? Never. Do people get on without paying? Of course! Are there inspectors to             that people have paid? Possibly, but very few. And people who run for the bus? They are       5      . How about jumping lights? Buses do so almost as frequently as cyclists.

Why? Because the target is        6        . People complained that buses were late and infrequent.        7       , the number of buses and bus lanes were increased, and drivers were     8      or punished according to the time they took. And drivers hit these targets. But they         9       hit cyclists. If the target was changed to        10         , you would have more inspectors and more sensitive pricing. If the criterion changed to safety, you would get more             11       drivers who obeyed traffic laws. But both these criteria would be at the expense of time.

There is another     12      : people became immensely inventive in hitting targets. Have you      13      that you can leave on a flight an hour late but still arrive on time? Tailwinds? Of course not! Airlines have simply changed the time a   14    is meant to take. A one-hour flight is now ballad as a two-hour flight.

The     15     of the story is simple. Most jobs are multidimensional, with multiple criteria. Choose one criterion and you may well     16     others. Everything can be done faster and made cheaper, but there is a     17     . Setting targets can and does have unforeseen negative consequences.

This is not an argument against target-setting. But it is an argument for exploring consequences first. All good targets should have multiple criteria     18     critical factors such as time, money, quality and customer feedback. The trick is not only to     19     just one or even two dimensions of the objective, but also to understand how to help people better     20     the objective.

1. [A] therefore [B] however [C] again [D] moreover

2. [A] Emphasize [B] Identify [C] Assess [D] Explain

3. [A] nearly [B] curiously [C] eagerly [D] quickly

4. [A] claim [B] prove [C] check [D] recall

5. [A] threatened [B] ignored [C] mocked [D] blamed

6. [A] punctuality [B] hospitality [C] competition [D] innovation

7. [A] Yes [B] So [C] Besides [D] Still

8. [A] hired [B] trained [C] rewarded [D] grouped

9. [A] only [B] rather [C] once [D] also

10. [A] comfort [B] revenue [C] efficiency [D] security

11. [A] friendly [B] quiet [C] cautious [D] diligent

12. [A] purpose [B] problem [C] prejudice [D] policy

13. [A] reported [B] revealed [C] admitted [D] noticed

14. [A] break [B] trip [C] departure [D] transfer

15. [A] moral [B] background [C] style [D] form

16. [A] interpret [B] criticize [C] sacrifice [D] tolerate

17. [A] task [B] secret [C] product [D] cost

18. [A] leading to [B] calling for [C] relating to [D] accounting for

19. [A] specify [B] predict [C] restore [D] create

20. [A] modify [B] review [C] present [D] achieve

答案及解析

Section I Use of English

1. 【答案】B(however)

【解析】逻辑关系题。观察选项可知,本题考查逻辑关系。比较前后两句语义,即It’s not difficult to...(做……不难)和it is much harder to...(做……难得多),由not difficult和much harder可知,前后两句语义相反,B项however(提示转折关系)符合原文逻辑关系。本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项therefore(因此)提示因果关系,C项again(又、再)提示并列关系,D项moreover(而且)提示递进关系,均不符合原文逻辑关系。

2. 【答案】A(Emphasize)

【解析】逻辑关系题。句中one和the other提示对比关系,and前后语义相反。由and后的the others become distorted(其余的就被扭曲了)可知,A项Emphasize(强调)符合原文逻辑关系,即,强调一个,其余则被忽略扭曲。本题答案为A项。

干扰选项:B项Identify(识别),C项Assess(评估),D项Explain(解释)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

3. 【答案】D(quickly)

【解析】语境题。代词this指代前一句的观点,即,设定目标会带来负面后果:只强调一点,其余则被忽略扭曲。本句是对该观点的举例论述。对比各项语义:A项nearly(几乎),B项curiously(好奇地),C项eagerly(渴望地)和D项quickly(快速地)。其中D项符合原文语义,即:坐上伦敦公交车,你很快就会看到这点是如何体现在司机身上的(Travel on a London bus and you’ll quickly see how this works with drivers)。本题答案为D项。

4. 【答案】C(check)

【解析】语境题。观察本段句式特点,可知,本段首句(Watch people get on and show their tickets)与下文为总分关系。作者随后以自问自答的形式,引出在公交车上乘车买票这一场景中几个群体的表现。由前文Do people get on without paying? Of course!(人们会逃票上车吗?当然!)对乘客表现的提问可知,本句要对检票员(inspectors)是否尽到检票责任提问。因此C项check(检查)符合原文语义。本题答案为C项。

干扰选项:A项claim(宣称),B项prove(证明)和D项recall(记起)均不符合原文语义。

5. 【答案】B(ignored)

【解析】语境题。借助前文Are there inspectors to  4   that people have paid? Possibly, but very few(有检察员检查大家是否支付吗?可能有,但是很少)可知,本句对赶公交的人这个群体的提问也涉及到是否买票的问题。根据前文中各个群体的表现可知,他们买票与否很可能也无人注意。B项ignored(被忽视)符合语义,本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项threatened(被威胁),C项mocked(被嘲弄)和D项blamed(被责备)均不符合原文语义。

6. 【答案】A(punctuality)

【解析】逻辑关系题。本句为段首句,本段下文与段首句为总分关系,语义一致。借助下文中drivers were    8     or punished according to the time they took(司机根据所用的时长获得  8   或惩罚),以及And drivers hit their targets(司机们达到他们的目标),可知,本句的target(目标)与时间有关。A项punctuality(准时)符合原文逻辑关系。

干扰选项:B项hospitality(好客),C项competition(竞争)和D项innovation(创新)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

7. 【答案】B(So)

【解析】逻辑关系题。观察选项可知,本题考查句间逻辑关系。比较前后两句语义,即People complained that buses were late and infrequent(人们抱怨公交车晚点且班次较少)和the number of buses and bus lanes were increased(公交车和公交车道的数量增加),可知二者为因果关系,即,人们抱怨为因,增加公交车数量为果。B项So(所以)符合原文逻辑关系。本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项Yes(确实如此),C项Besides(此外)和D项Still(仍然)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

8. 【答案】C(rewarded)

【解析】逻辑关系题。or(或者)提示选择关系,由or后面的punished(惩罚)可知,C项rewarded(奖励)符合原文逻辑,即,根据所花时长,司机们或接受奖励或遭受惩罚。本题答案为C项。

干扰选项:A项hired(被雇佣),B项trained(被培训)和D项grouped(被分组)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

9. 【答案】D(also)

【解析】逻辑关系题。观察选项可知,本题考查句间逻辑关系。比较上句drivers hit these targets与本句they  9   hit cyclists,可发现,hit为原词复现,提示两句为平行结构,D项also(也)符合原文逻辑,即,两个hit两个目标:前者hit到的是真正目标;后者hit到的是cyclists,意为误撞。由此引出设定目标带来的负面后果。本题答案为D项。

干扰选项:A项only(只有),B项rather(宁可)和C项once(一旦)均不符合原文语义。

10. 【答案】B(revenue)

【解析】语境题。根据后半句you would have more inspectors and more sensitive pricing(你将会看到更多检票员和更敏感的价格)可知,本题与金钱有关。B项revenue(收益)符合原文语义。本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项comfort(舒适),C项efficiency(效率)和D项security(安全)均不符合原文语义。

11. 【答案】C(cautious)

【解析】语境题。本句选项均为修饰drivers(司机)的形容词,根据本句If the criterion changed to safety(如果把标准改为安全性)可知,修饰司机的形容词需要体现司机安全驾驶的能力。因此D项cautious(谨慎的)符合原文语义,即,你将会看到更加谨慎且遵守交通规则的司机。本题答案为C项。

干扰选项:A项friendly(友好的),B项quiet(安静的)和D项diligent(勤勉的)均不符合原文语义。

12. 【答案】B(problem)

【解析】逻辑关系题。another提示本句与前文语义一致。根据上句But both these criterion would be at the expense of time(此处criterion可理解为target,意为:但这两个标准都将以牺牲时间为代价),可知,前文在说设立目标所致的负面影响。B项problem(问题)可与前文的负面影响进行呼应,符合原文逻辑关系。本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项purpose(目的),C项prejudice(偏见)和D项policy(政策)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

13. 【答案】D(noticed)

【解析】语境题。比较各项语义,A项reported(报道),B项revealed(揭露),C项admitted(承认)和D项noticed(注意到),可知,D项符合原文语义,即:你是否注意到,飞机起飞迟了一小时,却仍然准时到达?本题答案为D项。

14. 【答案】B(trip)

【解析】语境题。根据13题所在句语义“飞机起飞迟了一小时,却仍然准时到达”,及下句A one-hour flight is now billed as a two-hour flight(一小时的航程按两个小时收费)可知,此处,航空公司改变的是trip(旅程、航程)应花的时长。本题答案为B项。

干扰选项:A项break(休息),C项departure(离开)和D项transfer(转移)均不符合原文语义。

15. 【答案】A(moral)

【解析】语境题。the story指代前文航空公司为准时到达而修改航班实际时长,本句是对该故事的总结。A项moral(寓意)与story组成“the moral of the story”,意为“该故事的寓意”,符合原文语义。本题答案为A。

干扰选项:B项background(背景),C项style(风格)和D项form(形式)均不符合原文语义。

16. 【答案】C(sacrifice)

【解析】逻辑关系题。one和others提示对比,and前后内容语义相反。而且,本句与前一句所组成的结构“Most jobs are multidimensional, with multiple criteria. Choose one criterion and you may well  16   others”与首段最后两句的结构Most work-related behaviors have multiple components.  2   one and the others become distorted相似,语义也相近。借助首段对应部分的the others become distorted可知,C项符合原文逻辑关系,即:选择一个标准,你可能就要牺牲另一个。本题答案为C项。

干扰选项:A项interpret(诠释),B项criticize(批评)和D项tolerate(容忍),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

17. 【答案】D(cost)

【解析】逻辑关系题。本句中的but提示前后语义相反。由前半句Everything can be done faster and made cheaper(每件事都可以完成得很快,成本很低)可知,D项cost(代价)符合原文逻辑关系,即:但这是有代价的。本题答案为D项。

干扰选项:A项task(任务),B项secret(秘密)和C项product(产品)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

18. 【答案】C(relating to)

【解析】语境题。本题考查连接multiple criteria和critical factors的形容词短语语义。比较各选项语义,A项leading to(导致),B项calling for(要求),C项relating to(关于)和D项accounting for(对……作出解释),可知,C项符合原文语义,即,所有好的目标都应具有与关键因素(如时间、金钱、质量和用户反馈)相关的多个标准。本题答案为C项。

19. 【答案】A(specify)

【解析】逻辑关系题。not only ... but also提示递进关系,借助understand可知,先确定目标才能进一步理解目标,所以A项specify(明确规定)符合原文逻辑关系,即,诀窍是不仅要确定目标的一个甚至两个方面,而且要理解……。本题答案为A项。

干扰选项:B项predict(预 测),C项restore(恢复)和D项create(创造)均不符合原文逻辑关系。

20. 【答案】D(achieve)

【解析】语境题。比较各项语义,A项modify(修改),B项review(复习)和C项present(展示)和D项achieve(实现),可知D项最符合原文语义,即,实现目标(achieve the objective)。本题答案为D。

【新题型试题】

Part B

Directions:

In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

[A] Stay calm

[B] Stay humble

[C] Don’t make judgments

[D] Be realistic about the risks

[E] Decide whether to wait

[F] Ask permission to disagree

[G] Identify a shared goal

How to Disagree with Someone More Powerful than You

Your boss proposes a new initiative you think won’t work. Your senior colleague outlines a project timeline you think is unrealistic. What do you say when you disagree with someone who has more power than you do? How do you decide whether it’s worth speaking up? And if you do, what exactly should you say? Here’s how to disagree with someone more powerful than you.

41._____________________________

You may decide it’s best to hold off on voicing your opinion. Maybe you haven’t finished thinking the problem through, the whole discussion was a surprise to you, or you want to get a clearer sense of what the group thinks. If you think other people are going to disagree too, you might want to gather your army first. People can contribute experience or information to your thinking—all the things that would make the disagreement stronger or more valid. It’s also a good idea to delay the conversation if you’re in a meeting or other public space. Discussing the issue in private will make the powerful person feel less threatened.

42._____________________________

Before you share your thoughts, think about what the powerful person cares about—it may be the credibility of their team or getting a project done on time. You’re more likely to be heard if you can connect your disagreement to a higher purpose. When you do speak up, don’t assume the link will be clear. You’ll want to state it overtly, contextualizing your statements so that you’re seen not as a disagreeable underling but as a colleague who’s trying to advance a shared goal. The discussion will then become more like a chess game than a boxing match.

43._____________________________

This step may sound overly deferential, but it’s a smart way to give the powerful person psychological safety and control. You can say something like, “I know we seem to be moving toward a first-quarter commitment here. I have reasons to think that won’t work. I’d like to lay out my reasoning. Would that be OK?” This gives the person a choice, allowing them to verbally opt in. And, assuming they say yes, it will make you feel more confident about voicing your disagreement.

44._____________________________

You might feel your heart racing or your face turning red, but do whatever you can to remain neutral in both your words and actions. When your body language communicates reluctance or anxiety, it undercuts the message. It sends a mixed message, and your counterpart gets to choose what to read. Deep breaths can help, as can speaking more slowly and deliberately. When we feel panicky we tend to talk louder and faster. Simply slowing the pace and talking in an even tone helps the other person calm down and does the same for you. It also makes you seem confident, even if you aren’t.

45._____________________________

Emphasize that you’re offering your opinion, not gospel truth. It may be a well-informed, well-researched opinion, but it’s still an opinion, so talk tentatively and slightly understate your confidence. Instead of saying something like, “If we set an end-of-quarter deadline, we’ll never make it,” say, “This is just my opinion, but I don’t see how we will make that deadline.” Having asserted your position (as a position, not as a fact) demonstrates equal curiosity about other views. Remind the person that this is your point of view, and then invite critique. Be open to hearing other opinions.

【新题型试题答案解析】

41.【答案】E(Decide whether to wait)

【解析】

该段首句为中心句,提到“hold off on voicing your opinion”意为“别急着发表自己的意见”,该段倒数第二句也指出“delay the conversation”意为“延迟对话”,均与E项线索词“wait”对应,所以本题选E。

42.【答案】G(Identify a shared goal)

【解析】

该段首句设置提建议的情境,指出分享观点前需要“think about what the powerful person cares about”(想想那些有权利的人关心什么), 第二句也提到“higher purpose”(更高的目标)。同时倒数第二句中的“shared goal”(共同目标)是G项实词在原文中的复现,所以本题选G。

43.【答案】F(Ask permission to disagree)

【解析】

该段倒数第二句话提出作者本段所提建议能产生的效果。“This gives” 前后连接建议内容和潜在结果。作者将具体建议内容举例为“You can say …‘Would that be OK?’”,效果部分提到“choice”和“they say yes”,由此看出,建议是与“请求许可”相关,与F项“Ask permission”对应,所以本题选F。

44.【答案】A(Stay calm)

【解析】

本题通过段首和倒数第二句解题。段首描述情境,提出建议。前半句“heart racing”和“face turning red”表明紧张的状态,“But”用转折结构说明需要遏制前面提到的状态,故建议应意为“使不紧张”。倒数第二句总结评论作者本段所提的建议,其中“help the other person calm down”与A项中关键词“calm”对应,所以本题选A。

45.【答案】B (Stay humble)

【解析】

该段所提建议的中心句为段末句,“Be open to hearing other opinions”意为“对他人观点保持开放态度”,与B项线索词最为接近。且段内“invite critique”(请别人评判)也与B项“humble”谦逊和虚心的含义对应,所以本题选B。

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

“Reskilling” is something that sounds like a buzzword but is actually a requirement if we plan to have a future where a lot of would-be workers do not get left behind. We know we are moving into a period where the jobs in demand will change rapidly, as will the requirements of the jobs that remain. Research by the World Economic Forum finds that on average 42 per cent of the “core skills” within job roles will change by 2022. That is a very short timeline.

The question of who should pay for reskilling is a thorny one. For individual companies, the temptation is always to let go of workers whose skills are no longer in demand and replace them with those whose skills are. That does not always happen. AT&T is often given as the gold standard of a company that decided to do a massive reskilling program rather than go with a fire-and-hire strategy. Other companies had also pledged to create their own plans. When the skills mismatch is in the broader economy, though, the focus usually turns to government to handle. Efforts in Canada and elsewhere have been arguably languid at best, and have given us a situation where we frequently hear of employers begging for workers, even at times and in regions where unemployment is high.

With the pandemic, unemployment is very high indeed. In February, at 3.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent respectively, unemployment rates in Canada and the United States were at generational lows and worker shortages were everywhere. As of May, those rates had spiked up to 13.3 per cent and 13.7 per cent, and although many worker shortages had disappeared, not all had done so. In the medical field, to take an obvious example, the pandemic meant that there were still clear shortages of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel.

Of course, it is not like you can take an unemployed waiter and train him to be a doctor in a few weeks. But even if you cannot close that gap, maybe you can close others, and doing so would be to the benefit of all concerned. That seems to be the case in Sweden: When forced to furlough 90 per cent of their cabin staff, Scandinavian Airlines decided to start up a short retraining program that reskilled the laid-off workers to support hospital staff. The effort was a collective one and involved other companies as well as a Swedish university.

21. Research by the World Economic Forum suggests ______.

A. a controversy about the “core skills”

B. an increase in full-time employment

C. an urgent demand for new job skills

D. a steady growth of job opportunities

22. AT&T is cited to show ______.

A. an immediate need for government support

B. an alternative to the fire-and-hire strategy

C. the characteristics of reskilling programs

D. the importance of staff appraisal standards

23. Efforts to resolve the skills mismatch in Canada ______.

A. have appeared to be insufficient

B. have driven up labour costs

C. have proved to be inconsistent

D. have met with fierce opposition

24. We can learn from Paragraph 3 that there was ______.

A. a sign of economic recovery

B. a call for policy adjustment

C. a change in hiring practices

D. a lack of medical workers

25. Scandinavian Airlines decided to ______.

A. create job vacancies for the unemployed

B. retrain their cabin staff for better services

C. prepare their laid-off workers for other jobs

D. finance their staff’s college education

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